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Peter Witt streetcars that are not PCCs

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Posted by daveklepper on Monday, April 12, 2021 3:20 AM

The Holy Cross Cemetary Line was a half-mile, single-track, single-car operation, connected by one switch to the northbound track of he busy Nostrand Avenue Line.

 

 

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Posted by rcdrye on Tuesday, April 6, 2021 6:23 AM

Westinghouse control designators have an F in them if field control equipped.  Common types used in interurban and rapid transit equipment include

HLF - Hand acceleration, Line power, Field Control

ABF - Automatic acceleration, Battery power, Field control

All steel North Shore Line equipment had HLF.  Chicago's L had lots of variations, including one type (ABLFM) specifically designed to work with GE M- or PC- type control.  Operation depended on MU controller.

GE PC-5 (Pneumatic Cam) controls used in quite a few streetcars have field control built in but not always connected, either actuated by a separate lever on the operator's controller, or by a release lever permitting the controller to go to the field control notch.  PC-10 types used in heavier equipment get extra notches instead.

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Posted by daveklepper on Tuesday, April 6, 2021 2:30 AM

First, field shunting is only applicable to commutator motors, AC as well as DC, but not applicable to either AC synchrnous induction motors or AC non-synchronoys hysterises induction motors.  All field current in these motors is under computer control.  (Except many cases of synchronous motors with fixed speed and load for which such control is not necessary.)

As you already know, a DC generator is a motor in reverse, with the same basic parts.  With a field current applied, the rotating armature, with its own coils. provides useful power (current in amps and volts) at the brush terminals.

When a comutator motor is at rest, and current is applied, the current in amps is determined by the volts applied divided by the total resistance of the motor (Ohms Law), usually the armature windings in series with the field windings.  But as the motor begins to revolve, it generates its own voltage, called back-electro-motive force,  back EMF, and this reduces the amount of current in amps that the motor receives.

Transition takes motors or groups of motors that were connected in series and connects them in parallel, thus doubling the applied voltage.  Field shunting, field-weakening, reduces the back-EMF.   Most DC-motored rail equipment use both, and nearly all use transition.

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Posted by Overmod on Monday, April 5, 2021 8:32 PM

The perhaps more familiar term in American practice was 'field weakening'  

It may seem paradoxical that reducing the magnetic field in the stator would let the motors 'propel the car faster'.  In fact more "electricity" is being used in the motor, but it takes the form of more current going through the 'other half' of the magnetic interaction, the electromagnetic coil windings on the motor armature.  

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Posted by rcdrye on Monday, April 5, 2021 6:36 PM

In field shunting, a section of the motor's field is shorted out, reducing the strength of the field.  By weakening the field, the BEMF (Back Electro Motive Force) is reduced, allowing the motor to run faster than with a full field.  Most if not all of the cars with field control/field shunting have some kind of MU control, even if they never operated as multiple units.

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Posted by WILLIAM O CRAIG on Monday, April 5, 2021 3:11 PM

What was "field-shunting" that was mentioned above? I thought I was a streetcar fan, but I have never heard of that term.

 

 

 

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Posted by daveklepper on Monday, April 5, 2021 6:27 AM

Grand Avenue was the street the Lexington Avenue Elevated used between Myrtle and Lexington Avenues.  It also, like Myrtle and DeKalb Avenues, had a streetcar line.  Brooklyn's Lexington Avenue did not.

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Posted by daveklepper on Sunday, April 4, 2021 10:44 PM

First,  the posting was in error and has been corrected.  The car was 8468 and not 8188.  Field-shunt cars, the 8100-series, were not generally used on DeKalb Avenue.  They were used mainly on Ocean Avenue, and shown on earlier postings on this thread, and on Utica Avenue, where use of additional top speed, I'd estimate about 42 mph, was possdible.  I'd estimate the top speed, level track, of a regular 8000 to  be about 35 mph.

The previous photo was the downtown loop, but here is the main boarding location:

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Posted by Overmod on Sunday, April 4, 2021 2:45 PM

daveklepper
Side-view of field-shunt-equipped 8188

Where on the line, and how fast, were the field-shunted cars allowed to go?

My introduction to the joys of field shunting involved the account of the Electroliner testing.  In the version I heard, the train handily ran 108mph (on 28" wheels!) and at the end of that run a torch was called for and the coils summarily cut off...

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Posted by daveklepper on Sunday, April 4, 2021 2:23 PM

The DaKalb Av. Line had two northern terminals, two branches, and we will look at another view of the termional shown above, then briefly at the other terminal, then some views on a trip downtown, inbcluding passing under the DeKalb Avenue Station of the Lexington Avenue Elevated ib its short connection from Myrtle Av. to Lexington Av.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Posted by daveklepper on Sunday, March 28, 2021 3:10 PM

Side-view of 8468 at change ends time at end of DeKalb Avenue line:

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Posted by daveklepper on Wednesday, March 24, 2021 3:04 AM

Brooklyn's 8th Av. streetcar line was relarively loght and short, with its own tracks on 8th Avenue frm 39th to 62nd Street, location of the photograph, and where there was a doiuble-track connection to the Bay Ridge streetcar line and a free transfer t that line to reach Coney Island.  Or ne could use an extra nickle and use the Sea Beach Line, now the "N," fr C. I. or downtown Brooklyn and Manhattan.   At 39th Street, the line ran east from 8th Avenue, tracks shared with the longere-lasting and much heavier Church Av. line to Fort Hamilton Av., passing the 9th Avenue station, where most passengers would use West End subway trains (now "D") ir Culver elevated trains to reach downten Broklyn and Manhattan.

   

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Posted by daveklepper on Tuesday, February 2, 2021 11:52 AM

Prev ious:  Two street crossings were exce[tions to grade crossings on the Niortons Point Line.  They were Stillwell Avenue, adjacent to the eight-track rapid trnasit terminal, and the street one vblock west, where the line was on an elevated structure.  The track connection tw the two lower-level tracks at Stillwell Avenue south end was retained for many years to permit the weed-control train to enter line.  Connection to the rest of the streetcar system was via the Surf Avenue - Sea Gate line, with the tracks for the connection, with some rail dating from horsecar days were retained for five years after that line went bus.  Nortons Point was the last line to regularly use non-PCC equipment ihn Brooklyn, and it should have been kept, in my opinion.

 

on a sxomewhat diffwerent note, previous posting theGraham Line's single-end Peter Witt 6015 duid not show the whole in even lighting, so:

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Posted by daveklepper on Sunday, January 31, 2021 8:15 AM

I believe the abandonment of the Nortons Point line was a mistake.  It was all PRW. no street runnong, usual gade -cossings, went up an incline for direct interchange to the rapid-transit trains at Coney Island - Stillwell Avenue.  Originally, in the steam days, a westward extension of the Culver Line beyond Coney Island, and the first electric opeation was with open-platform elevated cars with trolley-poles and steps.

 

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Posted by daveklepper on Tuesday, January 12, 2021 1:41 PM

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Posted by daveklepper on Tuesday, January 5, 2021 8:12 AM

Interior of an 8000=series:

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Posted by daveklepper on Tuesday, January 5, 2021 4:30 AM

At the 95th Street and Fifth Avenue sourthwest corner of Brooklyn, near Fort Hamilton Park. two fan-trip cars, same as the double-end Peter Witts normally used.   Nearer car is 8120.

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Posted by daveklepper on Tuesday, October 20, 2020 7:41 AM

Another at Williamsburg Bridge Plaza:

  

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Posted by daveklepper on Thursday, October 1, 2020 8:31 AM

Vanderbuit and Flushing Avenues, with a double-end 8388 on the Graham line.

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Posted by daveklepper on Wednesday, September 30, 2020 7:20 AM

Back to a Peter Witt built as one and on a fan-trip, shown earlier on this thresd.  The operator is rewiring after the pole ledt the wire.  The strenge thing at the top of the picture is tha backside of a large advertizing sign:

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Posted by daveklepper on Wednesday, September 30, 2020 6:50 AM

The 5000 were the firtst Brooklyn lightweight steel cars and were built as pure center-door two-man cars, like the West Penn interurban cars.  But while West Penn converted theirs to one-man with a single door at the front-right, Leading to no real structural change, the Brooklyn and Queens Transit part of the BMT sliced the corners off, moving end posts to the right of what were the center windows, to permit installing a double door, effecting a Peter-Witt  door arrangement.  Some did operate through WWII, but the entire group was scrapped while older concvertable end-door deck-roof mostly wood cars were still in use.  I last saw one on West End. the streetcar mostly under the current "D" line in Brooklyn structure, in 1947, the first photo.  I wondered why the cars were removed from sevice early.  The answer came performing electronic darkroom work to make the 73-year-old deteriorated photos presentable.  Put a sraight-edge, ruler, book, or whatnot agaist the near-to-side views, and you will uncover that the cars developed a noticeable sag, despite the "Fishbelly" side construction, a aign of structural weakness.

 

 

 

 

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Posted by daveklepper on Tuesday, September 15, 2020 3:01 AM

The Williamsburg Bridge Plaza, at the Brooklyn end of the Bridge, also saw multiple lines, half their inbound terminal, and half crossing the Bridge to Manhattan, plus the Bridge local:

 

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Posted by daveklepper on Tuesday, September 8, 2020 5:08 AM

I believe 8111 went to the museum about two weeks after I took the photograph.  It has not been given a thorough restoration yet, was kept operable, but is still awaiting completion of post=Sandy repairs before it can operste again.

The busiest Brooklyn intersection for streetcars before June 1940 Unidixarion, and beginning of bus replacement was proably Flatbush Avemie and Fulton Street.  After  June 1940 that honor probably went to Flatbush Avenue and Livingston Street, the photo below.  I believe 8208 was a DeKalb Avenue car crossing the intersection on Livingston Street.  On the right in the distance is a Seveth Avenue PCC. which will continue straight on Flatbush for about a mile before turning straight soiuth on 7th Avenue.  The trolleybus is either St. Johns Avenue or Bergin Street, converted from streetcar a few months before the photo:

 

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Posted by daveklepper on Thursday, August 27, 2020 11:01 AM

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Posted by daveklepper on Thursday, August 27, 2020 5:37 AM

And at the other end of the Williamsburg Bridge:

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Posted by daveklepper on Thursday, August 27, 2020 5:29 AM

Termnal in use until late 1947 or early 1948.  8302!   The decal number supplied by Gilbert American Flyer for their HO New Haven passenger cars!   No bus replacement for the briege streetcars, patrons forced to use the subway trains.

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Posted by daveklepper on Thursday, August 27, 2020 5:25 AM

In Manhattan, there were two underground streetcar terminals, one at 2nd Avenue, 59th - 60th Streets, used until 1957 for Queensboro Bridge cars, and one at Essex and Delancy Streets, which you can still see today, unused, from the right windows of an M or J or Z train, leaving Essex and about to cross the Willisamsburg Bridge.

  

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Posted by daveklepper on Tuesday, March 3, 2020 9:24 AM

Another view of a tunstyle-equipped Brooklyn single-end,  probably at Tillary Street, with its three track layout.

Yes, I did reinfosce the ovehead, and probably should not have done so. 

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Posted by daveklepper on Tuesday, February 25, 2020 8:42 AM

As I get more skill in using Microsoft Paint and Photo Editor, some negatives that I thought were beyond repair have been brought to usefulness.  So here is one of Brooklyn's only single-track line, the Holy Cross Cemetary Shuttle, which ran about 1/3-of-a-mile east from Nostrand Avenue, where it had its only track connection with the system.

 

Although Brooklyn had only one single-track line, the Third Avenue System had more.  Indeed a majority of Yonkers lines were single-track or had single-track sections, the only exceptions being the 2, its Gettys Sq. short-turn, the 3. the 4, and the Yonkers - Mt. Veron 7.  The 1, 5, 6, 8, and 8 were partially or completely single-track.  All included passing sidings except 9, which ran only one car.  Nachod trolley contactor signals were used.   In addition, Third Avenue had The Bronx's Sedgewick Avenue line, also after Deoression cut-backs, a single-car line.

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