It's not very probable that you'll find a specific history for C56150 anywhere (with the possible but improbable exception of some Japanese-language railfan sites accessible only from Japan - they refuse to come up for inquiries from elsewhere.)
The 3'6" gauge Japan National Railways C56 class 2-6-0, of which 164 were built between 1935 and 1939, shares a boiler and machinery with the C12 class 2-6-0 (293 built between 1932 and 1947.) The tender gave (slightly) greater fuel and water capacity while lightening the weight on drivers. Sometimes referred to as the "pony" engine, it was light power, used on branchlines with turning facilities and on secondary routes with little freight traffic.
Some C56 locos (not including C56150) were regauged to meter gauge and sent to Thailand, where they were used on the line made famous by the bridge over the River Kwai (means water buffalo, in case you've ever wondered.)
The picture, IMHO, was taken on the JNR Koumi(koh-OOH-mee)-sen, a secondary through route in the heart of the Central Japan Alps, probably in the 1950's or early 1960's. I personally traveled that route in 1968, in the front end of a DMU train, and saw C56 powered freights on the line.
The Koumi-sen serves several ski resorts. Not being a snow bunny, I did my railfan thing in the summer.
Chuck (typing this about 3 meters from my copy of that C56150 poster)